Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Disorders in this category are conditions under which the growth and development of the brain functions (such as learning, communication, emotion management, memory and self-control) are impaired. Here we will only focus on one of the few disorders.


Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity.

Case Example: Tom, a seven-year old boy, is constantly on the go and cannot sit still. He also talks excessively and interrupts others in class. His teachers and parents are concerned about his inability to focus and pay attention in doing any tasks. They also found him forgetful, easily distracted and failed to give close attention to details that his homework is full of careless mistakes. Tom has lost a lot of his personal belongings, such as hats, gloves and water bottles.


It is estimated that 60% of children with ADHD will carry their symptoms into adulthood. This dispels the general misconception that ADHD can only happen to children. It also invalidated many people’s belief that symptoms of ADHD will be outgrown as an ADHD-child gets older.


Case Example: George has been let go by employers due to the following behaviours. He has difficulty with paying attention when dealing with complicated tasks, or tasks that seem to be difficult to handle or not seen as interesting to him. He is never able to meet deadlines, and he is easily distracted and makes mistakes. George has a tendency not showing up in time for work or for appointments, and he is easily impatient during any meetings.


His wife describes him as angry easily, driving fast and cutting lanes with explosive temper, interrupts others when they are still talking. He has changed jobs a number of times on the spur of the moment. George is easily forgetful especially in dealing with finances. One time, he forgot to pick up his three-year old son from day care that led to an unnecessary involvement by the Children’s Aid Society.


DISCLAIMER: Description of each of the mental issue is intended for a quick reference only. You are advised not to use it for self-diagnosis. If you have concerns about your mental health conditions, you are advised to seek medical advice from your family doctor or from a psychiatrist. If you already have a confirmed diagnosis of a mental health issue and you are considering counselling as an alternative treatment, you are encouraged not to stop taking medications without discussing and consulting with your family doctor or psychiatrist. Please also mention to your medical professionals about seeking counselling if you can.